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Air and Spaceborne Radar Systems: An Introduction

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Air and Spaceborne Radar Systems: An Introduction (Spie Press Monograph) (Hardcover)by Jean-Claude Marchais (Author), Eric Normant (Author), Jean-Philippe Hardange (Author), Philippe Lacomme (Author)


Hardcover: 424 pages
Publisher: SciTech Publishing; 1st edition (February 15, 2001)
Language: English
ISBN-10: 1891121138
ISBN-13: 978-1891121135
Product Dimensions: 10.2 x 7.3 x 1.5 inches


Product Description

This introduction to the field of radar is intended for actual users of radar. It focuses on the history, main principles, functions, modes, properties and specific nature of modern airborne radar. The book examines radar's role within the system when carrying out its assigned missions, showing the possibilities of radar as well as its limitations. Finally, given the changing operational requirements and the potential opened up by modern technological developments, a concluding section describes how radar may evolve in the future.
The authors review the current state of the main types of airborne and spaceborne radar systems, designed for specific missions as well as for the global environment of their host aircraft or satellites. They include numerous examples of the parameters of these radars. The emphasis in the book is not only on a particular radar technique, but equally on the main radar functions and missions. Even if a wide range of techniques are described in the book, the focus is on those which are connected to practical applications.
Users and other non-specialists will use the book to communicate better with suppliers, whereas engineers will find design examples and algorithms that actually work in such areas as air-to-air detection and tracking, air-to-ground, air-to-sea, and imaging from aircraft or from space. The authors give an original and independent view of the subject, based technical experience gained from their own close involvement with all the key development in airborne radar systems in France for the last 40 years.
KEY FEATURES:
- Visually stunning presentation, heavily illustrated with drawings, photos, charts, and more, including SAR images at very high resolution - Explains the motion effect on SAR images as well as on the main autofocus techniques and their performance. Includes an original algorithm for ISAR imaging of ships at sea.
- Gives equal treatment to air defense, ground surveillance and sea surveillance systems. Most books concentrate on air defense.
- Easy to understand. Can be read by anyone with only general technical and/or scientific knowledge.


From the Publisher
A practical tool on radar systems that will be of major help to technicians, student engineers and engineers working in industry and in radar research and development. The many users of radar as well as systems engineers and designers will also find it highly useful. Also of interest to pilots and flight engineers and military command personnel and military contractors.
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qxld  士官①  发表于 2017-1-6 21:38:40  | 显示全部楼层
Air and Spaceborne Radar Systems: An Introduction
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chenminwsf  上尉  发表于 2014-2-16 17:26:38  | 显示全部楼层
Air and Spaceborne Radar Systems: An Introducti
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uloveqian  士官①  发表于 2016-12-20 23:13:40  | 显示全部楼层
haobucuodeshu ,thank you
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Table of Contents
Foreword. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix
Part I — General Principles
Chapter 1 — The History and Basic Principles of Radar . 1
1.1 History. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Basic Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.2.1 Basic Configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2.2 Choice of a Wavelength. . . . . . . . . . . 12
Chapter 2 — Initial Statements of Operational
Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.2 Missions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.2.1 Surveillance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.2.2 Reconnaissance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.2.3 Fire Control and Targeting . . . . . . . 15
2.3 Carriers and Weapons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.3.1 Carriers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.3.2 Weapons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.4 System Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.5 Definitions of Flight Conditions . . . . . . . 19
Chapter 3 — The RADAR Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
3.2 Signal Transmission and Reception . . . . . 21
3.2.1 The Role of the Antenna on
Transmission. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
3.2.2 Role of the Antenna on Reception . . 23
3.2.3 Reflection from the Target . . . . . . . 23
3.3 Radar Equation in Free Space . . . . . . . . . . 24
3.4 The Radar Cross Section of a Target . . . . 25
3.4.1 Example of the Double Spheres . . . . 25
3.4.2 General Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
3.5 Mathematical Modeling of the Received
Signal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
3.6 Direction of Arrival and Monopulse
Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
3.6.1 Angular Fluctuation (Glint) . . . . . . . 33
vi Table of Contents
Chapter 4 — Propagation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
4.2 Role of the Ground . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
4.2.1 The Reflection Phenomenon. . . . . . . 35
4.2.2 The Presence of Obstacles—
Diffraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
4.3 The Role of the Troposphere . . . . . . . . . . 42
4.3.1 Normal Propagation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
4.3.2 Abnormal Propagation . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
4.3.3 Atmospheric Absorption. . . . . . . . . . . 45
4.4 Other Phenomena . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Chapter 5 — Noise and Spurious Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
5.2 Thermal Noise. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
5.2.1 The Characteristics of Thermal Noise . 47
5.2.2 Definition of the Noise Factor . . . . . 48
5.2.3 Noise Factor in a Reception Chain . . 49
5.3 Radiometric Noise. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
5.4 Spurious Echoes and Clutter . . . . . . . . . . 51
5.4.1 Clutter and Ground Clutter . . . . . . 51
5.4.2 Sea Clutter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
5.4.3 Meteorological Echoes
(Atmospheric Clutter) . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Chapter 6 — Detection of Point Targets . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
6.2 The Optimal Receiver (White Noise) . . . . . 60
6.2.1 Definition of Processing. . . . . . . . . . 60
6.2.2 Interpretation of the Optimal
Receiver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
6.2.3 Signal-to-noise Ratio at the Optimal
Receiver Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
6.2.4 Signal Detection in White Noise. . . . 65
6.3 Optimal Receiver for Known
Non-white Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
6.4 Adaptive Receiver for Unknown
Non-white Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
6.4.1 Adaptive Radar with a Noise-only
Reference Signal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
6.4.2 Adaptive Radar without a Noise-only
Reference Signal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
6.5 Space-time Adaptive Processing. . . . . . . . . 75
6.6 Waveform and Ambiguity Function. . . . . . . 76
6.6.1 Ambiguity Function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
6.6.2 Resolution Capability . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Table of Contents vii
6.6.3 Precision of Range and Velocity
Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Part II — Target Detection and Tracking
Chapter 7 — Clutter Cancellation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
7.2 Waveform Selection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
7.2.1 Calculation of Ground Clutter
Received by the Radar . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
7.2.2 General Clutter Cancellation. . . . . 90
7.2.3 Clutter Cancellation and
Waveform Selection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
7.3 Improvement Factor and
Spectral Purity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
7.3.1 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
7.3.2 Spectral Purity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
7.3.3 Constraints Linked to Clutter
Cancellation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
7.4 Dynamic Range and Linearity . . . . . . . . . . 112
Chapter 8 — Air-to-Air Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
8.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
8.2 Non-coherent Low-PRF Mode. . . . . . . . . . 115
8.2.1 Waveform and Theoretical Processing . 116
8.2.2 Non-coherent Radar Block Diagram . . 118
8.3 Pulse-compression Radar. . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
8.3.1 Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
8.3.2 Pulse-compression Radar Block
Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
8.3.3 Pulse-compression Systems. . . . . . . 129
8.4 Low-PRF Doppler Radars (MTI) . . . . . . . . 131
8.4.1 Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
8.4.2 Coherent Low-PRF Radar
Theoretical Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
8.4.3 MTI Basic Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . 133
8.4.4 Additional MTI Considerations . . . . 136
8.4.5 Airborne MTI (AMTI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
8.5 High-PRF Radar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
8.5.1 Continuous Wave (CW) Radar . . . . . 138
8.5.2 0.5-Duty Cycle, High-PRF Radar . . . 139
8.5.3 Range Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
8.6 Pulse-Doppler Mode (High- and Medium-PRF) . .145
8.6.1 Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
8.6.2 Ideal Pulse-Doppler Receiver. . . . . 146
8.6.3 Pulse-Doppler Radar Block Diagram. . 149
viii Table of Contents
8.6.4 Range Gate Sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
8.6.5 Frequency Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
8.6.6 Eclipse and Ambiguity Elimination . 152
8.6.7 Detection Performance . . . . . . . . . . 154
Chapter 9 — Air Target Tracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
9.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
9.2 Platform Motion and Attitude—
Coordinate Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
9.3 Single-Target Tracking (STT) . . . . . . . . . 161
9.3.1 Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
9.3.2 Acquisition—Presence. . . . . . . . . . . 162
9.3.3 General Structure of Tracking Loops. . 162
9.3.4 Range Tracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
9.3.5 Doppler Velocity Tracking. . . . . . . . 165
9.3.6 Angle Tracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
9.4 Plot Tracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
9.4.1 Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
9.4.2 Trajectory Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . 166
9.4.3 Tracking Management and Update . . 168
9.5 Track-While-Scan (TWS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Chapter 10 — Ground Target Detection and Tracking . 171
10.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
10.2 Detection and Tracking of Contrasted
Targets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
10.3 Detection and Tracking of Moving
Ground Targets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
10.3.1 Low-speed Aircraft (Helicopters) . . . 171
10.3.2 High-speed Aircraft (Airplanes) . . 172
Chapter 11 — Maritime Target Detection and Tracking . 177
11.1 Maritime Surveillance Radars . . . . . . . 177
11.2 Search Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
11.2.1 Positioning of the Radar with
Respect to Wind Direction . . . . . . . 178
11.2.2 Platform Altitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
11.3 Surface Vessel Detection . . . . . . . . . . . 180
11.3.1 Pulse-repetition Frequency . . . . . 180
11.3.2 Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
11.3.3 Polarization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
11.3.4 Transmission Frequencies. . . . . . . 181
11.3.5 Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
11.4 Detection of Small Targets (Periscopes). . . 182
11.4.1 Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
11.4.2 Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
11.4.3 Pulse-repetition Frequency . . . . . 184
Table of Contents ix
11.5 Maritime Target Tracking. . . . . . . . . . . . 185
11.5.1 Purpose of the Tracking Function . . 185
11.5.2 Tracking Initialization . . . . . . . . . . 185
11.5.3 Algorithm Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
11.6 Maritime Target Classification . . . . . . . 187
11.6.1 Radar Cross Section Measurement . . 187
11.6.2 Range Profile. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
11.6.3 Imaging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
Chapter 12 — Electromagnetic Pollution . . . . . . . . . . . 189
12.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
12.2 Electromagnetic Compatibility . . . . . . . 189
12.3 Interference from Other
Radar Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
12.3.1 Frequency Source (Master
Oscillator Exciter) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
12.3.2 Transmitter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
12.3.3 Antenna Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
12.3.4 Intermediate Frequency Receiver. 193
12.3.5 Digital Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
12.4 Inter-equipment Interference
on the Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
12.4.1 Decoupling the Antenna Systems . 194
12.4.2 Frequency Decoupling . . . . . . . . . . 195
12.4.3 Operation Management. . . . . . . . . . 195
12.5 Unintentional Interactions . . . . . . . . . . 195
12.5.1 Interactions Outside the
Radar Bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
12.5.2 Interactions Inside the Radar
Bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
Part III — Ground Mapping and Imagery
Chapter 13 — Ground Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
13.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
13.2 Principal Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
13.2.1 Aircraft Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
13.2.2 Beam Shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
13.2.3 Signal Dynamics Adaptation:
STC and Log Receiver. . . . . . . . . . . . 203
13.2.4 Angular Resolution. . . . . . . . . . . . 204
13.3 Ground Mapping with Monopulse
Sharpening. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
13.3.1 Sharpening by Suppression . . . . . . 206
13.3.2 Sharpening by Compression. . . . . . 206
x Table of Contents
Chapter 14 — Radar Imagery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
14.1 Imaging Radar Applications . . . . . . . . . . 207
14.2 Image Quality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
14.2.1 Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
14.2.2 Geometrical Linearity . . . . . . . . . . 212
14.2.3 Signal-to-noise Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . 212
14.2.4 Radiometric Resolution. . . . . . . . . 212
14.2.5 Radiometric Linearity. . . . . . . . . . . 214
14.2.6 Contrast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
14.2.7 Dynamic Range. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
14.3 Special Techniques for Range Resolution . 222
14.3.1 Deramp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
14.3.2 Stepped Frequency. . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
14.3.3 Synthetic Bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Chapter 15 — Synthetic Aperture Radar. . . . . . . . . . . . 233
15.1 Design Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
15.1.1 Synthetic Aperture Radar:
a Type of Doppler Processing . . . . . 234
15.1.2 Focused and Unfocused
Synthetic Aperture . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
15.1.3 A Remarkable Configuration:
the Side-looking Antenna Radar. . . 244
15.1.4 Ultimate SAR Resolution. . . . . . . . 247
15.2 SAR Ambiguities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
15.2.1 Range Ambiguity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
15.2.2 Cross-range Ambiguity. . . . . . . . . . 249
15.3 Spaceborne SAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
15.3.1 Side-looking Focused SAR Resolution. 253
15.3.2 A Range-ambiguous Waveform . . . . 254
15.3.3 Antenna Surface Area . . . . . . . . . . 256
15.3.4 Doppler Frequency and Yaw Steering . 258
15.4 SAR Operating Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
15.4.1 Doppler Beam Sharpening, with
Rotating Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
15.4.2 Spotlight SAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
15.4.3 Scansar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
15.4.4 Squint or Off-boresight Mode . . . 262
15.4.5 Multilook Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
15.4.6 Other Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
Chapter 16 — Synthetic Aperture Radar Specific Aspects . 265
16.1 Migrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
16.2 Phase Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
16.2.1 Effect of a Periodic Phase Error
of Frequency fn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
Table of Contents xi
16.2.2 Effect of a Random Error . . . . . . . 271
16.3 Platform Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
16.3.1 Calculation Example: Motion
along Platform Flight Axis . . . . . . . 274
16.3.2 Calculation of Transverse
Motion and Vibration Effects . . . . . 278
16.3.3 Summary of Platform Motion. . . . . 279
16.3.4 X-band or L-band? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
16.4 Spectral Purity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
16.4.1 Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
16.4.2 Effects of Instabilities . . . . . . . . . 283
16.4.3 Other Sources of Frequency
Instability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
16.5 Signal Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
16.5.1 Transfer Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
16.5.2 Processing Block Diagram. . . . . . . 290
16.5.3 “Single-pass” Processing . . . . . . . 290
16.5.4 Multilook Processing . . . . . . . . . . 292
16.6 Autofocus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
16.6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
16.6.2 Multilook Registration . . . . . . . . . 297
16.6.3 Contrast Maximization . . . . . . . . . . 301
16.6.4 Phase Gradient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
16.6.5 Asymptotic Performance of Autofocus 311
16.7 Power Budget . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
16.7.1 Power Budget for Point Targets . 315
16.7.2 Power Budget for Diffuse Targets. . 316
16.7.3 Multilook Processing . . . . . . . . . . 316
16.8 Localization Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
16.8.1 Localization Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
16.8.2 Bearing Measurement Accuracy . . 318
16.8.3 Computation of the Geographical
Localization Error. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
16.8.3 Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
16.9 Other Processing Methods . . . . . . . . . . 322
16.9.1 Moving Target Detection . . . . . . . . 322
16.9.2 Height Measurement Using
Interferometry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
16.9.3 Polarimetry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
16.9.4 Image-enhancement Processing. . . 328
16.9.5 Thematic Processing . . . . . . . . . . . 328
Chapter 17 — Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) . .329
17.1 Objectives and Applications. . . . . . . . . . 329
17.2 Preliminary Description of ISAR. . . . . . 329
17.2.1 Basic Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
xii Table of Contents
17.2.2 Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
17.2.3 Projection Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
17.3 Imaging of a Ship at Sea . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
17.3.1 Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
17.3.2 Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
Chapter 18 — Other Observation Radars. . . . . . . . . . . . 337
18.1 Millimeter-wave Radars . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
18.1.1 The Benefits of Millimeter Waves . . 337
18.1.2 Airborne Applications: Field of Use . 338
18.1.3 Cable RCS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
18.2 Scatterometers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
18.2.1 Orders of Magnitude . . . . . . . . . . . 340
18.3 Altimeters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
18.3.1 Antenna Beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
18.3.2 Power Budget . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
Part IV — Principal Applications
Chapter 19 — Radar Applications
and Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
19.1 Civil Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
19.1.1 Space Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
19.1.2 Air Transport Applications . . . . . . 347
19.1.3 Maritime Applications . . . . . . . . . . 347
19.2 Military Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
19.2.1 Space Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
19.2.2 Airborne Applications . . . . . . . . . . 348
19.2.3 Maritime Applications . . . . . . . . . . 348
19.3 Examples of Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
19.3.1 Ground Observation from Space . . 348
19.3.2 Airborne Reconnaissance . . . . . . . 350
19.3.3 Air Surveillance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
19.3.4 Maritime Surveillance. . . . . . . . . . 356
19.3.5 Battlefield Surveillance . . . . . . . 359
19.3.6 Air Superiority, Interception,
and Combat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
19.3.7 Tactical Support, Ground Attack,
and Interdiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
19.3.8 Very Low-altitude Penetration. . . 367
Chapter 20 — Design Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
20.1 Basic Equations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
20.2 Generic Radar Configuration . . . . . . . . 373
20.3 Space Observation Radar . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
Table of Contents xiii
20.3.1 Mission Preparation and
Management Chain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
20.3.2 Image Chain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
20.3.3 Image Exploitation Chain . . . . . . . . 377
20.4 Air-surveillance Radar (AEW) . . . . . . . . 377
20.4.1 AEW Specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
20.4.2 Technical Description . . . . . . . . . . 378
20.2.3 Performance Calculations . . . . . . 380
20.5 Maritime Surveillance Radar . . . . . . . . 383
20.5.1 Surface Vessel Detecting Mode . . 383
20.5.2 Detecting Small Targets (Periscope) . 384
20.6 Battlefield Surveillance . . . . . . . . . . . 385
20.6.1 Specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
20.6.2 Technical Description . . . . . . . . . . 385
20.7 Interception Radar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
20.7.1 Specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
20.7.2 Technical Description . . . . . . . . . . 390
20.8 Tactical Support Radar . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
20.8.1 Specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
20.8.2 Technical Description . . . . . . . . . . 394
20.9 Penetration Radar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400
20.9.1 Specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
20.9.2 Technical Description . . . . . . . . . . 401
Chapter 21 — Multifunction Radar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403
21.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403
21.2 Radar Modes and Functions . . . . . . . . . . 403
21.2.1 Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403
21.2.2 Sizing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
21.2.3 Performance and Constraints . . . 405
21.3 Technical Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . 408
21.4 Technical Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408
21.4.1 Antenna. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408
21.4.2 Transmitter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408
Chapter 22 — Technological Aspects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
22.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
22.2 The Major Stages in Technological
Innovation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
22.2.1 The Analog Age. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
22.2.2 The Digital Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413
22.2.3 The New Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415
22.3 Advances in Radar Components . . . . . . . 416
22.3.1 Electronic Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . 416
22.3.2 Electronic Power Circuits . . . . . . 417
22.3.3 Transmitters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418
xiv Table of Contents
22.3.4 Antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419
22.3.5 Exciters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422
22.3.6 Receivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423
22.3.7 Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424
22.4 Space Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428
22.4.1 Life Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428
22.4.2 Resistance to Radiation. . . . . . . . . 428
Part V — Radars of the Future
Chapter 23 — The Changing Target. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433
23.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433
23.2 Electromagnetic Signature . . . . . . . . . . 433
23.3 Radar Cross Section. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434
23.3.1 Effects that Produce RCS. . . . . . . 434
23.3.2 Factors Influencing RCS. . . . . . . . 436
23.3.3 Some Values for RCS . . . . . . . . . . . 436
23.3.4 Radar RCS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
23.4 Reducing Electromagnetic Signature . 439
23.4.1 Achieving Low RCS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440
23.4.2 Reducing RCS of the Radar . . . . . . 442
23.5 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442
Chapter 24 — Operational Aspects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
24.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
24.2 RCS Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
24.3 Detection Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446
24.4 Self-protection Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447
24.5 Missions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447
Chapter 25 — Principal Limitations of Present-day Radars .449
25.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449
25.2 Physical Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449
25.2.1 Power Budget . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449
25.2.2 Interception Probability of
Transient Targets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451
25.2.3 Limits on Accuracy in Measuring
Target Parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451
25.2.4 Resolution Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452
25.2.5 Limitations on Angular Coverage . 453
25.3 Technological Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . 453
25.3.1 Waveform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453
25.3.2 Spectral Purity and Dynamic Range . 454
25.3.3 Data Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454
25.3.4 Exploitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455
Table of Contents xv
Chapter 26 — Electronically Steered Antennas . . . . . 457
26.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457
26.2 Operational and Technical Benefits
of ESA for Airborne Radars. . . . . . . . . . . 458
26.2.1 Fighter Radar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458
26.2.2 AEW Radar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 460
26.2.3 Air-to-Ground Surveillance . . . . . 461
26.2.4 Maritime Patrol Radar . . . . . . . . . . 462
26.3 Competing ESA Solutions. . . . . . . . . . . . 462
26.3.1 Reflectarray . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463
26.3.2 RADANT ESA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464
26.3.3 Active ESA (AESA). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465
26.4 Conclusion: ESA Solutions for
Airborne Radars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466
Chapter 27 — Airborne and Spaceborne Radar
Enhancement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469
27.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469
27.2 Response to Target RCS Reduction . . . 469
27.2.1 Power Budget Increase . . . . . . . . . 469
27.2.2 Using Low-frequency Bands . . . . . 470
27.2.3 Multistatic Radar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471
27.3 Countering Electromagnetic Threats . 472
27.3.1 Waveforms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472
27.3.2 Beam Matching (Digital Beamforming) . 473
27.4 Multiple and Evolving Targets;
Angular Coverage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474
27.4.1 Electronic Scanning: Detection
and Scanning Strategies . . . . . . . . . 474
27.4.2 Conformal Antennas and
Dispersed Antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475
27.5 Space Imaging Radar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 476
27.5.1 Short- and Medium-term Development . 476
27.5.2 Long-term Development . . . . . . . . . 476
27.5.3 Air-Space Cooperation . . . . . . . . . . 476
Chapter 28 — Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477
List of Acronyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479
List of Symbols. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483
Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487
About the Authors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495

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