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Dielectric Films for Advanced Microelectronics

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Dielectric Films for Advanced Microelectronics (Wiley Series in Materials for Electronic & Optoelectronic Applications)
By Mikhail Baklanov, Karen Maex, Martin Green




Publisher: Wiley
Number Of Pages: 508
Publication Date: 2007-04-06
ISBN-10 / ASIN: 0470013605
ISBN-13 / EAN: 9780470013601
Binding: Hardcover




The topic of thin films is an area of increasing importance in materials science, electrical engineering and applied solid state physics; with both research and industrial applications in microelectronics, computer manufacturing, and physical devices. Advanced, high-performance computers, high-definition TV, broadband imaging systems, flat-panel displays, robotic systems, and medical electronics and diagnostics are a few examples of the miniaturized device technologies that depend on the utilization of thin film materials.

This book presents an in-depth overview of the novel developments made by the scientific leaders in the area of modern dielectric films for advanced microelectronic applications. It contains clear, concise explanations of material science of dielectric films and their problem for device operation, including high-k, low-k, medium-k dielectric films and also specific features and requirements for dielectric films used in the packaging technology. A broad range of related topics are covered, from physical principles to design, fabrication, characterization, and applications of novel dielectric films.
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lswluo + 30 + 1 谢谢分享,辛苦了.

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ljfa  中尉  发表于 2013-12-16 13:29:53  | 显示全部楼层
谢谢                                                   
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Masyuma  上等兵  发表于 2013-12-15 23:50:38  | 显示全部楼层
正好需要這類資料  
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gqz  士官④  发表于 2018-11-7 16:12:46  | 显示全部楼层
谢楼主的分享,看看
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bj_std  上尉  发表于 2008-12-22 12:32:19  | 显示全部楼层
搂主好人,和我们分享这么好的资料
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seuchinasun  士官⑥  发表于 2008-12-22 12:47:53  | 显示全部楼层
封面很有质感阿:9de :9de
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regine  大校  发表于 2008-12-22 19:42:53  | 显示全部楼层
It is new book,just wait for download
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ntzhai  士官⑥  发表于 2008-12-23 11:37:20  | 显示全部楼层
一定要收藏哦
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eliang  士官④  发表于 2008-12-23 16:55:21  | 显示全部楼层
搂主好人,和我们分享这么好的资料
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drjiachen  版主  发表于 2008-12-23 23:52:23  | 显示全部楼层
Contents
Series Preface xi
Preface xiii
1 Low and Ultralow Dielectric Constant Films Prepared by
Plasma-enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition 1
A. Grill
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Property Requirements for Integration 3
1.3 Characterization 4
1.4 Organic PECVD Dielectrics: Diamond-like Carbon and Fluorinated
Diamond-like Carbon 6
1.4.1 Preparation 6
1.4.2 Properties of DLC-type low-k dielectrics 7
1.4.3 Processing of DLC-type low-k dielectrics 12
1.4.4 Integration of DLC-type low-k dielectrics 14
1.4.5 Summary 15
1.5 SiCOH Films as Low-k and Ultralow-k Dielectrics 15
1.5.1 Preparation 16
1.5.2 Properties of SiCOH and pSiCOH dielectrics 18
1.5.3 Integration of SiCOH as the interconnect dielectric 29
1.6 Conclusions 30
Addendum 30
References 30
2 Spin-on Dielectric Materials 33
Geraud Dubois, Robert D. Miller, and Willi Volksen
2.1 Introduction 33
2.2 Spin-on Dense Materials 37
2.2.1 Organic polymers 37
2.2.2 Inorganic polymers 38
2.3 Spin-on Porous Materials 47
2.3.1 Porogen free systems 48
2.3.2 Porogen-containing systems 51
2.4 New Processing Strategy to Integration Issues 70
2.5 Summary 71
Acknowledgments 72
References 73
vi CONTENTS
3 Porosity of Low Dielectric Constant Materials 85
3.1 Introduction 86
3.2 Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy 86
David W. Gidley, Hua-Gen Peng, and Richard Vallery
3.2.1 Introduction 86
3.2.2 Overview of the PALS experimental technique 87
3.2.3 Ps in porous fi lms 89
3.2.4 Pore characterization with PALS 91
3.2.5 Future improvements in PAS capabilities 98
3.2.6 Conclusion 99
Acknowledgments 100
3.3 Structure Characterization of Nanoporous Interlevel Dielectric Thin
Films with X-ray and Neutron Radiation 100
Christopher L. Soles, Hae-Jeong Lee, Bryan D. Vogt, Eric K. Lin,
and Wen-li Wu
3.3.1 Introduction 100
3.3.2 Thin fi lm density by X-ray refl ectivity (XR) 101
3.3.3 Small-angle X-ray/neutron scattering 103
3.3.4 Pore wall density and pore structure 103
3.3.5 X-ray porosimetry 106
3.3.6 Comparison of small-angle scattering and X-ray porosimetry 114
3.3.7 Conclusions 116
Acknowledgments 117
3.4 Ellipsometric Porosimetry 117
Mikhail R. Baklanov
3.4.1 Introduction 117
3.4.2 Fundamentals of ellipsometric porosimetry 117
3.4.3 Porosity characterization by EP 120
3.4.4 Conclusions 130
Acknowledgments 131
References 131
4 Mechanical and Transport Properties of Low-k Dielectrics 137
J.L. Plawsky, R. Achanta, W. Cho, O. Rodriguez, R. Saxena, and W.N. Gill
4.1 Introduction 137
4.1.1 Classifi cation of Low-k Dielectrics 137
4.2 Mechanical Properties 145
4.2.1 Introduction 145
4.2.2 Modulus 146
4.2.3 Interfacial properties 150
4.3 Thermal Properties of Low-k Materials 171
4.3.1 Thermal stability 171
4.3.2 Thermal conductivity of low-k dielectric fi lms 173
4.4 Interaction of Porous Materials with Metals and Barrier Materials 179
4.4.1 The effect of the chemistry of the dielectric 179
4.4.2 The effect of dielectric morphology 187
4.5 Conclusions 188
References 190
CONTENTS vii
5 Integration of Low-k Dielectric Films in Damascene Processes 199
R.J.O.M. Hoofman, V.H. Nguyen, V. Arnal, M. Broekaart, L.G. Gosset,
W.F.A. Besling, M. Fayolle, and F. Iacopi
5.1 Introduction 199
5.2 Damascene Integration Approaches 201
5.2.1 From aluminum to copper in integrated circuits 201
5.2.2 Dual damascene architectures 204
5.3 Low-k Integration Challenges 212
5.3.1 Resist poisoning 212
5.3.2 Compatibility of low-k materials with wet cleaning 214
5.3.3 Compatibility of metallic diffusion barriers with low-k materials 215
5.3.4 Pore sealing 223
5.3.5 Processing damage to low-k fi lms 227
5.3.6 CMP compatibility 235
5.4 Reliability Challenges 238
Acknowledgments 239
References 240
6 ONO Structures and Oxynitrides in Modern Microelectronics:
Material Science, Characterization and Application 251
Yakov Roizin and Vladimir Gritsenko
6.1 Introduction 252
6.2 Technology and Basic Properties of Silicon Nitride/Oxynitride Films
and ONO Stacks 253
6.2.1 Traditional deposition techniques 254
6.2.2 Silicon nitrides and oxynitrides as gate dielectrics 255
6.2.3 ONO stacks for advanced memories 259
6.2.4 Compositional analyses of device-quality ONO stack 263
6.3 Atomic Structure of Silicon Oxynitride 269
6.4 Traps in the Nitride Layer of ONO 272
6.5 Charge Transport in Silicon Nitride 274
6.6 Device Applications of ONO Structures 280
6.6.1 Traditional SONOS 280
6.6.2 NROM memories 283
6.6.3 High-k dielectrics in SONOS memories 286
6.7 Conclusion 290
References 290
7 Material Engineering of High-k Gate Dielectrics 297
Akira Toriumi and Koji Kita
7.1 Introduction 297
7.2 Dielectric Permittivity of High-k Insulators 299
7.2.1 General 299
7.2.2 Microscopic polarization 300
7.3 Lattice Vibration 302
7.4 Electronic Structure 305
7.5 High-k Film Growth 308
7.6 Interface Layer 310
viii CONTENTS
7.6.1 Interface layer properties 311
7.6.2 Interface layer formation process 312
7.7 HfO2-based Ternary Oxides 317
7.7.1 HfSiOx and HfAlOx 317
7.7.2 New candidates for amorphous High-k dielectric fi lms 321
7.7.3 Dielectric permittivity engineering 324
7.8 High-k MOSFET 330
7.8.1 Inversion layer mobility 330
7.8.2 Threshold voltage 332
7.9 Summary 332
Acknowledgments 333
References 333
8 Physical Characterization of Ultra-thin High-k Dielectric 337
T. Conard, H. Bender, and W. Vandervorst
8.1 Introduction 337
8.2 Surface Preparation 340
8.2.1 HfO2 on Si by ALCVD 340
8.2.2 SrTiO3 on Si by MBE 342
8.2.3 HfO2 on Ge by MOCVD 342
8.3 Growth Mode 343
8.4 Film Thickness 346
8.5 Density 349
8.6 Composition 350
8.6.1 Bulk composition 350
8.6.2 Contamination 353
8.6.3 Interfacial layer characterization 354
8.7 Bandgap and band-offset 359
8.8 Crystallography 362
8.9 Defects 363
8.10 Conclusion 366
References 366
9 Electrical Characterization of Advanced Gate Dielectrics 371
Robin Degraeve, Jurriaan Schmitz, Luigi Pantisano, Eddy Simoen,
Michel Houssa, Ben Kaczer and Guido Groeseneken
9.1 Introduction 371
9.2 Impact of Scaling of SiO2-based Gate Dielectrics 374
9.2.1 Gate leakage current 374
9.2.2 C-V measurements and interpretation 377
9.2.3 Charge pumping 381
9.2.4 Noise characterization and modeling 386
9.2.5 Time-dependent dielectric breakdown 392
9.2.6 Negative-bias temperature instability 400
9.3 Characterization of High-k Dielectrics and Metal Gates 404
9.3.1 Effective oxide thickness: EOT vs CET 404
9.3.2 Gate workfunction 405
CONTENTS ix
9.3.3 Interface and bulk defect characterization 409
9.3.4 Noise characterization and modeling 414
9.3.5 Time-dependent dielectric breakdown 416
9.3.6 Negative-bias temperature instability 420
9.4 Conclusions 422
References 423
10 Integration Issues of High-k Gate Dielectrics 437
Yasuo Nara
10.1 Introduction 437
10.2 Thermal Stability Improvement by Nitrogen Incorporation 439
10.3 Interfacial Characteristics Between High-k and Silicon Substrate 440
10.4 Gate Material Selection: Poly-Si Gate vs Metal Gate 443
10.5 Integration of 65 nm Node HfSiON Transistor with SRAM 447
Acknowledgments 449
References 450
11 Anisotropic Conductive Film (ACF) for Advanced Microelectronic
Interconnects 453
Yi Li and C. P. Wong
11.1 Introduction 454
11.2 Materials 456
11.2.1 Adhesive matrix 457
11.2.2 Conductive fi llers 458
11.3 Electrical Properties 458
11.3.1 Self-assembled monolayer (SAM) 458
11.3.2 Thermal behavior of monolayer coating 461
11.3.3 Electrical properties of ACA with SAM 462
11.3.4 Thermal conductivity of ACA 462
11.3.5 Low-temperature sintering of nano-Ag-fi lled ACE 464
11.4 Assembly 464
11.5 Applications 467
11.5.1 Application of ACA/ACF in fl ip-chip 467
11.5.2 SMT applications 468
11.5.3 ACF for liquid crystal display (LCD) applications 468
11.6 Reliability 470
11.7 Future Advances of ACF 471
11.7.1 Materials development 471
11.7.2 High-frequency compatibility 471
11.7.3 Reliability 472
11.7.4 Wafer-level application 472
11.8 Conclusion 472
References 473
Index 477
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drjiachen  版主  发表于 2008-12-23 23:54:56  | 显示全部楼层
Dielectric Films for Advanced Microelectronics.part1
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[ 本帖最后由 drjiachen 于 2008-12-24 09:50 编辑 ]
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drjiachen  版主  发表于 2008-12-24 09:50:48  | 显示全部楼层
Dielectric Films for Advanced Microelectronics.part2

Dielectric Films for Advanced Microelectronics.part2.rar

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EMK  上尉  发表于 2008-12-24 16:32:32  | 显示全部楼层
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