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Ultra-wideband radar technology / edited by James D

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data   
Ultra-wideband radar technology / edited by James D. Taylor. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-8493-4267-8 (alk.) 1. Radar. 2. Ultra-wideband devices. I. Taylor, James D., 1941-TK6580 .U44 2000 621.3848--dc21  00-030423   


This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher. All rights reserved. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use, or the personal or internal use of specific clients, may be granted by CRC Press LLC, provided that $.50 per page photocopied is paid directly to Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923 USA. The fee code for users of the Transactional Reporting Service is ISBN 0-8493-4267-8/00/$0.00+$.50. The fee is subject to change without notice. For organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by the CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged. The consent of CRC Press LLC does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, for creating new works, or for resale. Specific permission must be obtained in writing from CRC Press LLC for such copying. Direct all inquiries to CRC Press LLC, 2000 N.W. Corporate Blvd., Boca Raton, Florida 33431. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe.   
© 2001 by CRC Press LLC No claim to original U.S. Government works International Standard Book Number 0-8493-4267-8 Library of Congress Card Number 00-030423 Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Printed on acid-free paper   


Preface
Knowledge is of two kinds. We know a subject ourselves,
or we know where we can find information upon it.
Samuel Johnson (1709–1784)
My first book, Introduction to Ultra-Wideband Radar Systems, gave engineers and managers a
practical technical theory book about a new concept for remote sensing. Ultra-Wideband Radar
Technology presents theory and ideas for future systems development and shows the potential
capabilities.
Ultra-wideband (UWB) radar systems use signals with a bandwidth greater than 25 percent of
the center frequency. In this case, bandwidth means the difference between the highest and lowest
frequencies of interest and contains about 95 percent of the signal power. Example waveforms
include impulse (video pulse), coded impulse trains, stepped frequency, pulse compression, random
noise, and other signal formats that have high effective bandwidths.
UWB radar has advanced since I entered the field in 1987. Several years ago, I received an
advertisement for a UWB radar intrusion alarm and bought some as birthday presents for my special
ladies. A petroleum distributors’ trade magazine described how future gas stations will use UWB
communication links and transponders to identify customers and vehicles. While robots fill the
tank, the individual account will be properly charged and the transaction completed without the
driver leaving the car. Some companies are proposing to build locating systems for factories that
will attach a UWB transponder to each container. Personal locating systems are other potential
applications. Other companies are designing UWB wireless links to connect homes, offices, and
schools.
When I was young, Uncle Scrooge McDuck, a Walt Disney character, had a special watch that
computed his income tax by radar. Given the recent commercial development of micropower UWB
technology, I expect to see a UWB wristwatch radar advertised soon. It sounds like a great idea
for soldiers, policemen, hunters, or anybody who might want to detect hidden persons or objects
behind cover. After adding some more technology, follow-on models could calculate your taxes by
radar. Gyro Gearloose, Scrooge McDuck’s inventor friend, was right on target.
When I organized a session at the 1999 International Ultra-Wideband Conference in Washington,
D.C., my speakers reported on UWB radar progress in ground-penetrating radar, airborne SAR
systems, automotive radar, and medical imaging. In contrast to the SPIE and IEEE meetings that
I usually attend, commercial development issues occupied almost half of the program. The main
topic of discussion was about changing the Federal Communications Commission regulations
covering low-power UWB sensing and communication systems. It appears that legal issues will be
the principal obstacle to future UWB systems development.
Given this background, I think that UWB radar technology will develop along parallel tracks.
Commercial low-power short-range systems, using integrated circuit technology for sensing and
communications, will be one path. High-power systems for remote fine resolution imaging and
sensing will be the other.
Microwatt power impulse radar systems can provide practical solutions to many short-range
sensing and communication problems. There is now a strong interest in using UWB signals for
short-range wireless interconnection and networking activities. Commercial applications will drive
the development of low-power devices once the many regulatory issues are settled. Because UWB
signals can provide all-weather sensing and communications over short ranges, it may appear in
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