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Digital Techniques for Wideband Receivers

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发表在  2008-12-29 15:10:45  | 显示全部楼层 | 阅读模式

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[size=120%]Digital Techniques for Wideband Receivers (Artech House Radar Library)
By James Bao-Yen Tsui


  • Publisher : Artech House Publishers
  • Number Of Pages: 608
  • Publication Date: 2001-05
  • ISBN-10 / ASIN: 1580532993
  • ISBN-13 / EAN: 9781580532990
  • Binding: Hardcover


Product Description:
This newly updated, second edition of Digital Techniques for Wideband Receivers is a current, comprehensive design guide for your digital processing work with today’s complex receiver systems. Brand new material brings you up-to-date with the latest information on wideband electronic warfare receivers, the ADC testing
procedure, frequency channelization and decoding schemes, and the operation of monobit receivers.
The book shows you how to effectively evaluate ADCs, offers insight on building electronic warfare receivers, and describes zero crossing techniques that are critical to new receiver design. From fundamental concepts and procedures… to recent technology advances in digital receivers, you get practical solutions to all your demanding wideband receiver problems. This hands-on reference is packed with 1,103 equations and 315 illustrations that support key topics covered throughout the book.
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发表于 2014-1-28 14:48:20  | 显示全部楼层
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发表于 2013-9-29 09:40:27  | 显示全部楼层
好资料  谢谢楼主
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很感兴趣啊!谢谢楼主!
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Contents
Preface .................................................................................... xvii
About the Author ...................................................................... xix
1. Introduction ..................................................................... 1
1.1 Wideband Systems ............................................................. 1
1.2 Digital Approach ................................................................. 1
1.3 Obstacles in the EW Receiver Development ..................... 4
1.4 Organization of the Book .................................................... 4
1.5 Specific Remarks ................................................................ 5
References .................................................................................... 6
2. Requirements and Characteristics of Electronic
Warfare Receivers .......................................................... 7
2.1 Introduction ......................................................................... 7
2.2 Introduction to Electronic Warfare ...................................... 7
2.3 Difference between Intercept and Communication
Receivers ............................................................................ 9
2.4 Signal Environment for EW Receivers ............................... 10
2.5 Requirements of EW Receivers ......................................... 12
2.6 Parameters Measured by an EW Receiver ....................... 13
2.7 Frequency Information ........................................................ 13
2.8 AOA Information ................................................................. 17
2.9 Outputs of an EW Receiver ................................................ 18
2.10 Overview of Analog EW Receivers .................................... 19
Contents xiii
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
2.11 Instantaneous Frequency Measurement (IFM)
Receivers ............................................................................ 20
2.12 Channelized Receivers ...................................................... 21
2.13 Bragg Cell Receivers .......................................................... 22
2.14 Compressive (Microscan) Receivers ................................. 23
2.15 Digital Receivers ................................................................. 25
2.16 Characteristics and Performance of EW Receivers .......... 26
2.16.1 Single Signal .................................................... 27
2.16.2 Two Simultaneous Signals ............................... 28
2.17 Potential Trend in EW Receiver Development .................. 29
2.17.1 Theoretical Problem Solutions ......................... 29
2.17.2 Queuing Receiver ............................................ 29
2.17.3 Compressive Receiver Used for AOA
Measurement ................................................... 29
2.17.4 Channelized IFM Receiver ............................... 30
2.17.5 Digital EW Receiver ......................................... 30
2.18 Electronic Warfare Processor ............................................. 31
2.18.1 Deinterleaving .................................................. 31
2.18.2 PRI Generation ................................................ 34
2.18.3 Radar Identification .......................................... 34
2.18.4 Tracking ........................................................... 34
2.18.5 Revisiting ......................................................... 34
2.19 EW Receiver Design Goals ................................................ 35
2.20 Summary ............................................................................ 36
References .................................................................................... 36
3. Fourier Transform and Convolution ............................. 39
3.1 Introduction ......................................................................... 39
3.2 Fourier Transform ............................................................... 39
3.3 Impulse Function ................................................................ 42
xiv Contents
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
3.4 Properties of Fourier Transform ......................................... 43
3.4.1 Linearity ........................................................... 44
3.4.2 Even and Odd Functions .................................. 44
3.4.3 Duality ............................................................. 45
3.4.4 Scaling ............................................................. 47
3.4.5 Time Shift ........................................................ 48
3.4.6 Frequency Shift ................................................ 49
3.4.7 Derivative ......................................................... 49
3.4.8 Integral ............................................................ 49
3.5 Fourier Series ..................................................................... 50
3.6 Comb Function ................................................................... 51
3.7 Convolution ......................................................................... 55
3.8 Parseval’s Theorem ............................................................ 58
3.9 Examples ............................................................................ 59
3.10 Summary ............................................................................ 71
References .................................................................................... 76
4. Discrete Fourier Transform ........................................... 77
4.1 Introduction ......................................................................... 77
4.2 Signal Digitization ............................................................... 77
4.3 Graphical Description of Discrete Fourier
Transform (DFT) ................................................................. 78
4.4 Analytic Approach to Discrete Fourier Transform .............. 81
4.5 Properties of Discrete Fourier Transform ........................... 83
4.5.1 Limited Frequency Bandwidth .......................... 83
4.5.2 Unmatched Time Interval ................................. 84
4.5.3 Overlapping Aliasing Effect on Real Data ........ 84
4.6 Window Functions .............................................................. 87
4.6.1 Rectangular Window ........................................ 89
4.6.2 Gaussian Window ............................................ 90
Contents xv
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
4.6.3 Cosine Window Raised to the αth Order .......... 91
4.6.4 Generalized Hamming Window ........................ 92
4.7 Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) ............................................. 93
4.8 Possible Advantages of DFT Over FFT in Receiver
Applications ........................................................................ 101
4.8.1 Initial Data Accumulation ................................. 102
4.8.2 Sliding DFT ...................................................... 102
4.9 Periodogram ....................................................................... 104
4.10 Averaged Periodogram ...................................................... 105
References .................................................................................... 108
5. Fourier Transform-Related Operations ......................... 111
5.1 Introduction ......................................................................... 111
5.2 Zero Padding ...................................................................... 111
5.3 Periodic and Linear Convolutions ...................................... 113
5.4 Peak Position Estimation for Rectangular Window ........... 119
5.5 Peak Position Estimation for Manning Window ................. 123
5.6 Peak Position Estimation through Iteration ........................ 124
5.7 Actual Frequency Determination by Fast Fourier
Transform ........................................................................... 126
5.8 Real Input Computed by a Complex FFT Operator ........... 128
5.9 Autocorrelation .................................................................... 130
5.10 Autocorrelation (Blackman-Tukey) Spectrum
Estimation ........................................................................... 132
5.11 Application of FFT to Spectrum Estimation from
Autocorrelation Function ..................................................... 134
5.12 Basic Idea of Sub-Nyquist Sampling Scheme ................... 137
5.13 Phase Relation in a Sub-Nyquist Sampling System .......... 140
5.14 Problems and Potential Solutions of Sub-Nyquist
Sampling Scheme .............................................................. 143
5.15 Discrete Fourier Transform through Decimation ................ 146
xvi Contents
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
5.16 Applications of Decimation Method to
EW Receivers ..................................................................... 148
5.17 Simplified Decimation Method ............................................ 150
References .................................................................................... 152
6. Analog-to-Digital Converters ......................................... 155
6.1 Introduction ......................................................................... 155
6.2 ADC through Folding Technique ........................................ 155
6.3 ADC through Sigma-Delta Modulation ............................... 157
6.4 Basic Sample and Hold Circuit ........................................... 160
6.5 Basic ADC Performance and Input Bandwidth .................. 162
6.6 Apparent Maximum and Minimum Signals to
an ADC ............................................................................... 163
6.7 Quantization Noise of an Ideal ADC .................................. 166
6.8 Noise Level Determined by Processing Bandwidth
and Dithering Effect ............................................................ 168
6.9 Spurious Responses .......................................................... 169
6.10 Analysis on Spur Amplitudes .............................................. 172
6.11 Further Discussion on Spur Amplitudes ............................. 176
6.12 Noise Effects in ADC .......................................................... 179
6.13 Sampling Window Jittering Effect ....................................... 182
6.14 ADC Test through Histogram ............................................. 186
6.15 ADC Test through Sine Curve Fitting ................................. 188
6.16 ADC Test through FFT Operation ...................................... 189
6.17 Requirements on ADC ....................................................... 209
References .................................................................................... 212
Appendix 6.A ................................................................................. 214
Appendix 6.B ................................................................................. 216
Appendix 6.C ................................................................................. 216
Contents xvii
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
7. Amplifier and Analog-to-Digital Converter
Interface ........................................................................... 219
7.1 Introduction ......................................................................... 219
7.2 Key Component Selection .................................................. 220
7.3 Notations ............................................................................. 220
7.4 Comparison Sensitivity of Analog and Digital
Receivers ............................................................................ 222
7.5 Noise Figure and Third-Order Intercept Point .................... 223
7.6 Characteristics of the Amplifiers in Cascade ..................... 225
7.7 Analog-to-Digital Converter ................................................ 230
7.8 Noise Figure of Amplifier and ADC Combination ............... 231
7.9 Amplifier and ADC Interface ............................................... 232
7.10 The Meaning of M and M'’ .................................................. 234
7.11 Computer Program and Results ......................................... 235
7.12 Design Example ................................................................. 237
7.13 Experimental Results .......................................................... 238
7.13.1 Noise Figure Measurement .............................. 239
7.13.2 Dynamic Range Test ....................................... 240
References .................................................................................... 244
Appendix 7.A ................................................................................. 245
Appendix 7.B ................................................................................. 246
8. Frequency Downconverters ........................................... 249
8.1 Introduction ......................................................................... 249
8.2 Baseband Receiver Frequency Selection .......................... 250
8.3 Frequency Conversion ....................................................... 250
8.4 In-Phase (I) and Quad-Phase (Q) Channel
Conversion .......................................................................... 253
8.5 Imbalance in I and Q Channels .......................................... 255
8.6 Analog I and Q Downconverters ........................................ 259
xviii Contents
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
8.7 Digital Approach to Generate I and Q Channels ............... 262
8.8 Hilbert Transform ................................................................ 262
8.9 Discrete Hilbert Transform ................................................. 265
8.10 Examples on Discrete Hilbert Transform ........................... 268
8.11 Narrowband I and Q Channels through a Special
Sampling Scheme .............................................................. 271
8.12 Wideband I and Q Channels through a Special
Sampling Scheme .............................................................. 271
8.13 Hardware Considerations on Filter Design for
Wideband Digital I-Q Channels .......................................... 274
8.14 Digital Correction of I and Q Channel Imbalance .............. 276
References .................................................................................... 279
Appendix 8.A ................................................................................. 280
9. Sensitivity and Detection Problems .............................. 283
9.1 Introduction ......................................................................... 283
9.2 Electronic Warfare Receiver Detection Approach ............. 284
9.3 Potential Detection Advantages in a Digital
EW Receiver ....................................................................... 285
9.3.1 Frequency Domain Detection ........................... 285
9.3.2 Time Domain Detection ................................... 286
9.4 False Alarm Time and Probability of False Alarm for
One Data Sample ............................................................... 287
9.5 Threshold Setting for One Data Sample ............................ 288
9.6 Probability of Detection for Single-Sample
Detection ............................................................................. 289
9.7 Detection Based on Multiple Data Samples ...................... 291
9.8 Detection Scheme for Multiple Samples
(L-Out-of-N) ........................................................................ 292
9.9 Probability Density Function and Characteristic
Function .............................................................................. 293
Contents xix
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
9.10 Probability Density Function of Sum Samples with a
Square Law Detector .......................................................... 294
9.11 Detection of Multiple Samples Based on
Summation .......................................................................... 296
9.12 An Example of Single-Sample Detection ........................... 297
9.13 An Example of Multiple-Sample (L Out-of-N)
Detection ............................................................................. 299
9.14 Selection of Threshold Level .............................................. 302
9.15 Optimizing the Selection of Threshold ............................... 304
9.16 An Example of N Sample Detection (Summation
Method) ............................................................................... 306
9.17 Introduction to Frequency Domain Detection .................... 308
9.18 A Suggested Approach to Frequency Domain
Detection ............................................................................. 309
9.19 Probability of False Alarm in Frequency Domain ............... 311
9.20 Input Signal Conditions in Frequency Domain
Detection ............................................................................. 312
9.21 Probability of Detection in Frequency Domain ................... 314
9.22 Examples on Frequency Domain Detection ...................... 317
9.23 Comments on Frequency Domain Detection ..................... 318
References .................................................................................... 319
Appendix 9.A ................................................................................. 320
Appendix 9.B ................................................................................. 321
Appendix 9.C ................................................................................. 322
Appendix 9.D ................................................................................. 322
Appendix 9.E ................................................................................. 323
Appendix 9.F ................................................................................. 324
Appendix 9.G ................................................................................. 324
Appendix 9.H ................................................................................. 324
Appendix 9.I ................................................................................... 325
xx Contents
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
Appendix 9.J .................................................................................. 325
Appendix 9.K ................................................................................. 326
Appendix 9.L .................................................................................. 327
Appendix 9.M ................................................................................ 327
10. Phase Measurements and Zero Crossings ................... 329
10.1 Introduction ......................................................................... 329
10.2 Digital Phase Measurement ............................................... 330
10.3 Angle Resolution and Quantization Levels ........................ 332
10.4 Comparison of Phase Measurement and
FFT Results ........................................................................ 333
10.5 Application of the Phase Measurement Scheme ............... 334
10.6 Analysis of Two Simultaneous Signals .............................. 335
10.7 Frequency Measurement on Two Signals ......................... 338
10.8 Single-Frequency Measurement from Zero
Crossing .............................................................................. 340
10.9 ILL Condition in Zero Crossing for Single-Signal and
Remedy ............................................................................... 343
10.10 Simplified Zero Crossing Calculation for
Single-Signal ....................................................................... 344
10.11 Experimental Results from Single-Frequency Zero
Crossing Methods ............................................................... 347
10.12 Application to Coherent Doppler Radar Frequency
Measurement ...................................................................... 349
10.13 Zero Crossing Used for General Frequency
Determination ..................................................................... 352
10.14 Basic Definition of the Zero Crossing Spectrum
Analysis ............................................................................... 353
10.15 Generating Real Zero Crossings ........................................ 354
10.16 Calculating Coefficients for Zero Crossing Spectrum
Analysis ............................................................................... 356
Contents xxi
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
10.17 Possible Configuration of Zero Crossing Spectrum
Analyzer .............................................................................. 359
References .................................................................................... 360
11. Frequency Channelization ............................................. 363
11.1 Introduction ......................................................................... 363
11.2 Filter Banks ......................................................................... 364
11.3 FFT and Convolution Operations ....................................... 365
11.4 Overlapping Input Data in the FFT Operations .................. 366
11.5 Output Data Rate from FFT Operation .............................. 372
11.6 Decimation and Interpolation .............................................. 374
11.7 Decimation and Interpolation Effects on the Discrete
Fourier Transform ............................................................... 377
11.8 Filter Bank Design Methodology ........................................ 378
11.9 Decimation in the Frequency Domain ................................ 380
11.10 Output Filter Shape from a Decimated FFT ....................... 384
11.11 Using Weighting Function to Widen the Output
Filter .................................................................................... 384
11.12 Changing Output Sampling Rate ....................................... 387
11.13 Channelization through Polyphase Filter ........................... 388
11.14 Operation of the Polyphase Filter ....................................... 390
11.15 Filter Design ........................................................................ 390
References .................................................................................... 395
12. Monobit Receiver ............................................................ 397
12.1 Introduction ......................................................................... 397
12.2 Original Concept of the Monobit Receiver ......................... 398
12.3 Monobit Receiver Idea ........................................................ 398
12.4 Design Criteria .................................................................... 399
12.5 Receiver Components ........................................................ 403
12.6 RF Chain, ADC, and Demultiplexer ................................... 403
xxii Contents
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
12.7 Basic FFT Chip Design ...................................................... 408
12.8 Frequency Encoder Design ................................................ 410
12.9 Selection of Thresholds ...................................................... 410
12.10 Preliminary Performance of a Monobit Receiver ............... 413
12.11 Possible Improvements ...................................................... 417
12.12 Chip Layout ......................................................................... 418
References .................................................................................... 419
13. Processing Methods after Frequency
Channelization ................................................................ 421
13.1 Introduction ......................................................................... 421
13.2 Basic Considerations of Channelized Approach ................ 422
13.3 Filter Shape Selection ........................................................ 423
13.4 Analog Filters Followed by Phase Comparators ................ 428
13.5 Monobit Receiver Followed by Phase Comparators ......... 429
13.6 Digital Filters Followed by Phase Comparators ................. 431
13.7 Analog Filters Followed by Monobit Receivers .................. 434
13.8 Considerations of Digital Filters Followed by Monobit
Receivers ............................................................................ 440
13.9 Increase the Output Sampling Rate by Two ...................... 440
13.10 Digital Filters Followed by Monobit Receivers ................... 443
13.11 Digital Filter Bank Followed by Monobit Receivers
and Phase Comparators .................................................... 446
13.12 Digital Filter Bank Followed by another FFT ...................... 446
References .................................................................................... 447
14. High-Resolution Spectrum Estimation ......................... 449
14.1 Introduction ......................................................................... 449
14.2 Autoregressive (AR) Method .............................................. 450
14.3 Yule-Walker Equation ......................................................... 452
14.4 Levinson-Durbin Recursive Algorithm ................................ 455
Contents xxiii
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
14.5 Input Data Manipulations .................................................... 457
14.5.1 Covariance Method .......................................... 459
14.5.2 Autocorrelation Method .................................... 461
14.6 Backward Prediction and Modified Covariance
Method ................................................................................ 462
14.7 Burg Method ....................................................................... 465
14.8 Order Selection ................................................................... 467
14.9 Prony’s Method ................................................................... 470
14.10 Prony’s Method Using the Least Squares Approach ......... 475
14.11 Eigenvectors and Eigenvalues ........................................... 477
14.12 MUSIC Method ................................................................... 479
14.13 ESPRIT Method .................................................................. 482
14.14 Minimum Norm Method ...................................................... 487
14.15 Minimum Norm Method with Discrete Fourier
Transform ........................................................................... 489
14.16 Adaptive Spectrum Estimation ........................................... 491
References .................................................................................... 497
Appendix 14.A ............................................................................... 499
Appendix 14.B ............................................................................... 500
Appendix 14.C ............................................................................... 501
Appendix 14.D ............................................................................... 501
Appendix 14.E ............................................................................... 502
Appendix 14.F ............................................................................... 504
Appendix 14.G ............................................................................... 505
Appendix 14.H ............................................................................... 506
Appendix 14.I ................................................................................. 508
15. Angle of Arrival Measurements ..................................... 509
15.1 Introduction ......................................................................... 509
15.2 Queuing Concept ................................................................ 510
xxiv Contents
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
15.3 Digital Data from a Linear Antenna Array .......................... 512
15.4 Outputs from a Circular Antenna Array .............................. 514
15.5 Two-Element Phase Array Antenna ................................... 517
15.6 AOA Measurement through Zero Crossing ....................... 519
15.7 Phase Measurement in AOA Systems with Multiple
Antennas ............................................................................. 520
15.8 Fourier Transform Over Space Domain ............................. 521
15.9 Two-Dimensional Fourier Transform ................................. 524
15.10 Frequency Sorting Followed by AOA
Measurements .................................................................... 527
15.11 Minimum Antenna Spacing ................................................ 529
15.12 Chinese Remainder Theorem ............................................ 531
15.13 Application of Chinese Remainder Theorem to AOA
Measurements .................................................................... 532
15.14 Practical Considerations in Remainder Theorem .............. 535
15.15 Hardware Considerations for Digital AOA
Measurements .................................................................... 536
References .................................................................................... 538
16. Receiver Tests ................................................................ 539
16.1 Introduction ......................................................................... 539
16.2 Types of Receiver Tests ..................................................... 540
16.3 Preliminary Considerations in Laboratory Receiver
Tests ................................................................................... 542
16.4 Receiver Tests through Software Simulation ..................... 544
16.5 Laboratory Test Setup ........................................................ 545
16.6 Anechoic Chamber Test Setup .......................................... 546
16.7 Preliminary Tests ................................................................ 547
16.8 Single-Signal Frequency Test ............................................ 549
16.8.1 Frequency Accuracy Test ................................ 549
16.8.2 Frequency Precision Test ................................ 551
Contents xxv
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
16.9 False Alarm Test ................................................................. 551
16.10 Sensitivity and Single-Signal Dynamic Range ................... 552
16.11 Pulse Amplitude and Pulse Width Measurements ............. 553
16.12 AOA Accuracy Test ............................................................ 554
16.13 TOA Test ............................................................................ 555
16.14 Shadow Time, Throughput Rate, and Latency
Tests ................................................................................... 557
16.15 Two-Signal Frequency Resolution Test ............................. 558
16.16 Two-Signal Spurious Free Dynamic Range Test .............. 558
16.17 Instantaneous Dynamic Range Test .................................. 559
16.18 Anechoic Chamber Test ..................................................... 560
16.19 AOA Resolution Test .......................................................... 560
16.20 Simulator Test ..................................................................... 562
16.21 Field Test ............................................................................ 563
References .................................................................................... 564
Appendix 16.A ............................................................................... 564
Appendix 16.B ............................................................................... 565
Glossary ................................................................................. 567
Index ....................................................................................... 571

[ 本帖最后由 drjiachen 于 2008-12-31 10:20 编辑 ]
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Digital Techniques for Wideband Receivers.part1
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Digital Techniques for Wideband Receivers.part2-4

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传完了么,给个共多少部分的说明么,谢谢!!!
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正在下载,谢谢了!!!!!!:50bb
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好资料,谢谢分享!
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好资料 非常感谢 辛苦了:cacakiki12de :cacakiki12de
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